Guide de l’audition (Le) (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition)

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The long range internal stress necessary to ensure the compatibility of deformation between the hard and soft regions controls the observed Bauschinger effect. Nous n'avons pas. Composition des mailles amorphes construites 11 Tableau 2. Proprietes des polymeres et plastifiants utilises 11 Tableau 3. Comparaisons entre les Tt The Massif Central area, characterized by a typical intraplate alkaline serie, is the largest magmatic province of the West-European Rift system.

Although it has been the subject of several studies, the nature of Massif Central sources is still a matter of debate and many hypotheses are proposed, including deep-rooted continental hotspot, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and an asthenospheric flow linked to the lithospheric root of the Alpine chain. Major element compositions show that melts trapped in inclusions evolve by limited fractional crystallization. Their major element chemistry rules out the hypothesis of a mantle source in the spinel stability field and requires a garnet-bearing mantle source.

Analyzed for trace-element composition by LA-ICP-MS, they display homogeneous, enriched patterns, similar to those characterizing oceanic island and continental basalts. Such trace-element feature are typical of. Cette these est constituee de trois sujets de recherche distincts.

Les deux premiers articles traitent du phenomene de supraconductivite dans un modele bidimensionnel, dans le troisieme article on etudie l'action effective d'un systeme electronique soumis a l' effet d'un champ magnetique systeme de Hall et le dernier article examine la quantification d'un systeme de particules identiques en deux dimensions d'espace et la possibilite des anyons. Le modele qu'on analyse dans les deux premiers articles est un systeme fermionique dont les particules chargees et de masse nulle interagissent entre elles avcc un couplage attractif et fort.

L'analyse de l'action effective decrivant la physique a basse energie nous permet d'examiner la structure de l'espace de phase.

Ados : scarifications et guérison par l’écriture (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition)

A temperature nulle, le parametre d'ordre du systeme prend une valeur moyenne non nulle. Consequemment, la symetrie continue U 1 du modele est spontanement brisee et il en resulte l'apparition d'un mode de Goldstone. En presence d'un champ electromagnetique externe, ce mode disparait et le champ de jauge acquiert une masse donc l' effet Meissner caracteristique d'un supraconducteur. En outre, on montre que l'inclusion des effets thermiques change radicalement le mecanisme de supraconductivite. En effet , on montre que la brisure spontanee de la symetrie U 1 n'est plus possible a temperature finie a cause de tres severes divergences infrarouges.

Par contre, la dynamique des tourbillons vortex existant dans le plan devient essentielle. On montre que le phenomene de supraconductivite resulte du confinement de ces objets topologiques et que la temperature critique s'identifie a celle de Kosterlitz -Thouless. Ce mecanisme de supraconductivite presente l'avantage d'aboutir a un rapport gap a la temperature critique plus eleve que celui du.

Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group years, years , income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. French children n aged years. Older children drank more plain water than did younger children and boys drank more plain water than did girls. No socio-economic gradient for plain water consumption was observed.

Children drank milk at breakfast and plain water during lunch and dinner.

Analyses of beverage consumption patterns by eating occasion and location can help identify ways to increase water consumption among children. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age LIA , and the causes of these temporal anomalies are yet being poorly understood.

To address this question, highly resolved glacier reconstructions going far back in time based on historical documents for the last years or on dendrochronological and radiocarbon dating for the Holocene are very important as they give valuable insights in past climate.

However, such reconstructions exist only for few glaciers worldwide, depending on the public perception and the accessibility of the corresponding glacier and its surrounding area. One of these regions of interest is the well-documented Mont Blanc area. Here, we present a new high-resolution reconstruction of length changes for the "Glacier des Bossons", situated in the French part of the Mont Blanc area.

This reconstruction is based on historical material newly discovered, that has not been evaluated so far for glacier reconstructions. Paris: Armand Colin, Each session was separated from the following one by a minimal period of one week. This precaution was taken in order to avoid possible memorization biases.

Several other constraints were applied to avoid any potential habituation effect9: no more than two consecutive stimuli in the same language and no more than two consecutive stimuli of the same gender female or male voice. The experiment was conducted separately for the two groups of participants French and American English native speakers.

However, the stimuli, the order of presentation and the experimental procedure were exactly the same for the two groups. The procedure was similar in the four sessions. After having checked that these instructions were perfectly understood by the participants, the presentation of the stimuli would begin.

Schweinberger, C. Casper, N. Hauthal, J.

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Kaufmann, H. Kawahara, N. Kloth, D. Robertson, A. Current Biology, 18, , The participants had a few seconds to answer between each stimulus.

www.transalpinaonline.com/wp-includes/281/cual-es-la-mejor-red-social-para-conocer-personas.php Results 3. Table 1 — Main results for American English and French listeners. American English listeners French listeners Percent Percent correct Mean degree Mean degree correct answers of certainty11 of certainty answers Session 1 ,00 6,87 ,00 6,87 Session 2 94,17 6,64 97,40 6,61 Session 3 94,17 6,46 91,41 5,78 Session 4 82,50 6,16 88,24 5,69 Results for session 1 natural voices are perfectly clear: all of the female-male categorizations made by the two groups of listeners are correct.

A few incorrect answers were given in session 2 mean f0 at Hz for both females and males while preserving intonation. In session 3 flat f0 at Hz for both female and male voices , we can notice that the proportion of correct answers slightly decreased in French listeners, compared to session 2, whereas it remained stable in English listeners. Finally, the proportion of correct answers as well as the mean degree of certainty decreased in session 4 mean f0 at Hz for males and Hz 11 On a scale going from 0 to 7.

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This tendency was more pronounced in American English than in French listeners. The corresponding graph is shown in Figure 1, below. Figure 1 — Mean percentage of correct answers in each experimental session 1, 2, 3 and 4 for French listeners, with error bars.

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A closer look at the results showed that a large majority of incorrect answers in session 3 9 out of 11 were female voices wrongly identified as male voices. The graph resulting from this analysis is presented in Figure 2, below. Figure 2 — Mean percentage of correct answers in each experimental session 1, 2, 3 and 4 for English listeners, with error bars. However, the absence of intonation did not influence their confidence, since the difference between sessions 2 and 3 was not significant.

The resulting graph is presented in Figure 3, below.

Conférence: Epistémologie des modélisations en sciences humaines.

Error bars are displayed. We can notice, for instance, that the stimuli produced by FA2, MA1 and MF2 appeared to be difficult to identify for American English listeners low percentage of correct answers, all sessions taken together but not for French listeners. Difference between the mean percentage of correct answers obtained by French and English listeners in the two sessions in which mean f0 was modified sessions 2 and 4 Out of the four experimental sessions, two were intended to test the influence of mean f0 at different levels: sessions 2 and 4.

In each of them, American English listeners obtained higher identification scores than French listeners. This might suggest that American English listeners are more sensitive to mean f0 than French listeners in a gender identification from speech task. The corresponding graph is shown in Figure 4, below.

Figure 4 — Mean percentage of correct answers for the two sessions in which mean f0 was modified sessions 2 and 4 as a function of the native language of the listeners, with error bars. This suggests that mean fundamental frequency actually played a greater role in American English than in French listeners. Discussion - Conclusions This gender identification from speech experiment showed several interesting results.

This suggests that when mean f0 is at an ambiguous level, its influence decreases and is compensated by other acoustic clues vowel formants, voice quality, intonation, etc. Hypothesis 2, stating that mean fundamental frequency is a more decisive clue for American English than for French listeners, was also supported. The mean percentage of correct identifications, in the two sessions in which mean f0 was modified, is significantly lower for American English than for French listeners.