Le rire de logre (Folio) (French Edition)
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He invokes Samson as a model ofcourage Cliges His works are marked by frequent use of rhetorical tropes and figures that he would have learned from reading in the canon of auctores 'authorities', ancient authors who were the basis of the twelfth-century school curriculum. Schooled in Latin literature, Chretien may have been familiar with the ancient texts transmitting the tales of Troy and Thebes and the founding of Rome: the Latin narratives of Dares the Phrygian and Dictys the Cretan, Statius's Thebaid, Virgil's Aeneid.
In Cliges, Alis is persuaded to come to a peaceful agreement with his brother by the ominous example of Eteocles and Polinices , enemy brothers in Statius's Thebaid. Mabona-grain's lady is said to be more lovely than Lavinia Erec and Helen. Chretien views Alexander the Great as an example of wealth, power, and largess Erec , , , Cliges , but also as a man marked by vices Perceval 14, , and he takes Alexander's horse Bu-cephalos as an equine paragon Lancelot On Enide's saddle is carved the story of the Aeneid:.
It probably derives as well, however, from adaptations, fairly recent in Chretien's period, of ancient tales into the vernacular, in the series of poems that constitutes the ''matter of Rome the great,'' namely the Roman de Thebes ca. Vernacular versions of the legend of Alexander the Great were available in the Roman dAlexandre: an Occitan version by Alberic of Pisancon early in the century, then an anonymous version in French decasyllabic verse from around , followed by versions by Eustache, Lambert le Tort, Alexandre de Bernay,.
Chretien also knew the literature of his contemporaries. The Apoloine of Philomena is the hero of Apollonius of Tyre, a very popular romance in Latin of which a lost French version is thought to have been written around the middle of the twelfth century. He refers as well to five pagans who appear in chansons de geste: Thiebaut l'Esclavon, Saracen king in the Prise d'Orange, Foucon de Candie, and a number of other songs of the William cycle; Opinel, who is either a Saracen mentioned in the late works La Mort Charlemagne and Gaufrey or, more likely, Otinel, eponymous hero of a chanson de geste; Fernagu, a Saracen in the Entree dEspagne and Floovant all three Saracens mentioned in Erec ; the Saracen king Ysore, who plays a role in the Moniage Guillaume Lancelot ; and Forre, another Saracen king figuring in a lost song about the capture of Noples but whose name is incorporated into the idiom ''to avenge Forre'' venger Forre, Yvain This history was popular in its own right—Julia Crick has repertoried extant manuscripts.
Geoffrey, who calls himself Galfridus Monemutensis Geoffrey of Mon-mouth, a town in the Welsh marches that was probablyhis place ofbirth , is named as a witness in charters from Oxford dated from to and also in the agreement of Westminster between King Stephen and his soon-to-be successor Henry Plantagenet in He died around Geoffrey twice. George, of which he may have been an Augustinian canon. He once refers to himself as Galfridus Arturus, which suggests that his father's name was Arthur.
Although he is obviously drawing on Gildas's Destruction ofBritain De excidio Britanniae and the History ofthe Britons Historia Brittonum ofthe writer known as ''Nennius'' see Dumville , Geoffrey claims as an important source ''a very ancient book in the British language that, from Brutus the first king of the Britons to Cadwallader son of Cadwallo, put forth the acts of all of them continuously and in order in very beautiful phrasings'' Britannici sermonis librum uetustissimum qui a Bruto primo rege Britonum usque ad Cadualadrum filium Caduallonis actus omnium continue et ex ordine perpulcris orationibus proponebat, Wright 1.
According to an epilogue that appears in some manuscripts, this book was brought ex Britannia Wright ; lit. George, has long been debated. According to Gerald of Wales, Cornish and Breton were mutually intelligible languages in the twelfth century J. Caerwyn Williams ; translated in Thorpe ; see also Brom-.
But Geoffrey appears to have had access to many sources, both written and oral, whose strands he wove into a coherent account of the kings of Britain from Brutus, great-grandson of Aeneas, to Cadwallader, after whom the rule of Britain passed to the Saxons. Just under a quarter of the history is devoted to Arthur, whose reign is marked not only by success against the Germanic newcomers but also by an invasion of the European.
It is cut off in the year by the battle of Camlan and the king's removal to the Isle of Avalon. The History of the Kings of Britain is dedicated in its oldest form to powerful patrons: Robert, earl of Gloucester d. Geoffrey probably had in mind to provide a heroic past for the kings of Britain with which the Norman dynasty could associate itself Gerould There is no reason to believe that Chretien knew Geoffrey's History of the Kings of Britain directly, and very little to indicate that he knew its earliest surviving complete French version, the Roman de Brut contrary to Kohler 11 , completed in by the Norman Wace, who was a native of Jersey and became a canon of the cathedral of Bayeux.
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That the Roman de Brut is found in a number of manuscripts that contain other histories or works on national origins argues that many, perhaps most, medieval readers considered it to have a factual value on the same level as that of the other works Blacker To judge by a few resemblances in content and style, above all in descriptions, Wace might have provided for Chretien a model of narrative about King Arthur written in Old French and a framework for the courtly Arthurian world see Pelan Wace repeats Geoffrey's statement that Guinevere was living with Mordred, which may have influenced Chretien's tale about Guinevere's adultery with a knight close to Arthur in Lancelot.
A description of commercial activities. Chretien's evocation of the state of Britain after the death of King Uther Perceval , corresponds in sense to Wace's account of the same period Sturm-Maddox Chretien's Celtic sources, largely coming to him through oral tradition, are treated in Chapter 5: Celtic Myth, Folklore, and Historical Tradition.
Of new developments in the study of Chretien de Troyes, none is more promising than the advances in codicology and textual criticism, fields that leave behind them a lasting benefit long after more ephemeral interests have begun to assume a look of quaintness. Two single-volume editions of Chretien's works appeared in the same month in Uitti edition of Yvain , Anne Berthelot editions and translations of Philomena, Guillaume dAngleterre, and the two songs , and Daniel Poirion editions and translations of Lancelot and Perceval, and introduction to the volume. Although all five of the major romances are edited from a codex whose readings had been made available in the past—Paris, Bibliotheque nationale, fonds francais , copied by the scribe Guiot—the widely used editions of that manuscript in the series entitled Les Romans de Chretien de Troyes d'apres la copie de Guiot Bibliotheque nationale, fr.
The Pleiade volume furnishes extensive introductions and notes for all the texts. It brought Chretien and his works to the attention of the cultivated French reading public more than ever before.
Hult edition and translation of Yvain , Marie-Claire Zai edition and translation of the songs , and Olivier Collet translation of Philomena printed with the edition established in by Charles de Boer. Guillaume dAngleterre is not included in this edition. With the exception of Lancelot, the texts are from manuscripts other than Guiot's copy. The editions of the five romances had appeared as separate volumes in the Lettres Gothiques series. Based on the Guiot manuscript, these texts are a great improvement over those that appeared under the general editorship of Roques.
The latter are noninterventionist, placing their faith in an extremely competent but sometimes creative scribe and correcting onlyobvious errors. As is the case with other textual traditions of medieval French literature, editors are returning to sounder methods developed primarily by German scholars of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that enable us to approach more closely the texts as Chretien wrote them. For the reader who is interested in learning more about the history of textual criticism as practiced on medieval French literary texts, Alfred Foulet and Mary B.
In addition to providing a complete repertory of the medieval textual sources for Chretien's works, with authoritative codico-logical descriptions and a series of excellent studies, this publication makes available more than four hundred photographic plates and figures of the manuscripts themselves.
In contrast to the methodless ''new philology,'' this work is an achievement that combines sound philological principles with the concerns of art historians and represents a genuine advance in studies of Chretien de Troyes. The datings of Chretien's manuscripts in the present book are based on Terry Nixon's invaluable study c.
In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, romances or episodes from them were sometimes performed by jongleurs, as can be seen from the list of topics ascribed to jongleurs performing in the wedding scene of the mid-thirteenth-century Occitan romance Flamenca Duggan The contents of the tablets were then transferred to the more durable medium of parchment, after which the wax was smoothed over for subsequent reuse Rouse and Rouse ; Duggan In addition to making school texts, such shops would receive commissions from wealthy patrons who wished to have books made, either in Latin or in the vernacular language.
Works would often first be copied in quires of six, eight, or ten parchment folios, which would be bound to form a book L. Booksellers employed scribes, rubricators, and illuminators, and they often carried out the work of copying, decorating, and binding themselves Rouse and Rouse Books were expensive to produce and were acquired mostly by the nobility, by clerics, and by prosperous burghers. Certainly the romances of Chretien that had the greatest influence on subsequent literature were Lancelot and Perceval.
No extant manuscript containing Chretien's romances is contemporary with the author himself. The earliest manuscript dates from the extreme end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Tours codex of Cliges Bibliotheque municipale ; Nixon c: , which contains no other text.
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Perceval: Clermont-Ferrand, Bibliotheque municipale et interuniversitaire , 7 first quarter of the century, and Florence, Biblioteca Riccardiana , first half of the century. They are likely to have been produced for nobles with relatively meager economic resources. The Annonay fragments in private hands, the property of M.
The scribe's dialect is champenois.
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Patricia Stirnemann dates the production of the manuscript to which the Annonay fragments belonged to between and and on the basis of their decoration includes them in the ''Manerius'' series produced largely in Champagne between around and around Stirnemann This style is found in a manuscript of the Bible copiedby the scribe Manerius Paris, Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve , hence its name. It is impossible to say, however, whether works by other authors were in the Annonay manuscript as it was originally constituted. If that manuscript also included Lancelot, it was one of only three to have contained all five of Chretien's romances.
The other two, both large-format codices in the fonds francais of the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris, are the famous fr. Guiot's copy is, more than any other, the manuscript upon whose texts Chretien's editors have based their editions. He who wrote it is named Guiot. In front of Notre-Dame-du-Val is his permanent dwelling.
Devant Nostre Dame del Val est ses osteus tot a estal. The purpose of this colophon, with its mention of the location of Guiot's shop in front of the collegial church of Notre-Dame-du-Val in the faubourg. Provins was one of the sites of the renowned fairs of Champagne, and merchants and rich patrons were likely often to pass Guiot's way. The Guiot manuscript is tricolumnar and was copied in three units. The first part contains Erec et Enide, Lancelot, which opens with an historiated initial depicting Marie de Champagne plate 1 , Cliges, Yvain, and the three-line colophon.
The second section consists of the romance Athis et Prophilias Hilka , also known as Le Siege dAthenes, a romance of antiquity written in the early thirteenth century by a certain Alexander, perhaps Alexander of Bernay, and more than 20, lines long in this version. This substantial manuscript was probably commissioned by a patron who had an interest in ancient history, especially the matter of Britain Schmidt-Chazan 75 ; it is likely that most medieval readers believed Arthur to have been a historical figure, and they made little distinction between classical times and Arthurian antiquity.
The anonymous scribe of ms. The scribe continues plate 3 :.
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But what Chretien testifies You can hear at this point without delay. Lords, if I were to say more, It would not be good to say. He then goes back to the text of the Roman de Brut and copies it to the end see Walters ;Huot ;Putter A large foliate initial begins each work. Manuscript and Guiot's volume are both large-format codices, and the selection of works in each reveals an emphasis on history from the ancient Greeks to the Arthurian world. John Benton 43 thought the patron of Guiot's codex might have been Blanche of Navarre, countess and regent of Champagne from to , who died in A more likely possibility along the same lines, raised by Patricia Stirne-mann , is that Guiot copied his codex for Blanche's son, Thi-baut IV ''le Chansonnier'' of Champagne , r.